December 28, 2016

On this day December 28th...

On this date December 28, exactly 200 years ago, the American Colonization Society, founded in 1816 to assist free black people in emigrating to Africa, was the brainchild of the Reverend Robert Finley, a Presbyterian minister from Basking Ridge, New Jersey. Finley believed that blacks would never be fully integrated into American society and that they would only be able to fulfill their potential as human beings in Africa, the "land of their fathers." He saw colonization as a charitable work, one that would benefit American blacks and Africans alike through the spreading of Christianity to Africa. He also thought that it would prompt a gradual end to slavery.

In keeping with the popular thought of the day, Finley saw the presence of blacks in America as a threat to the national well-being and the quality of life for whites. He said that free blacks were "unfavorable to our industry and morals" and that removing them would save Americans from difficulties such as interracial marriage and having to provide for poor blacks. 

In December 1816, Finley traveled to Washington, D.C. There he won the immediate support of his brother-in-law, Elias B. Caldwell, Clerk of the Supreme Court, and Caldwell's friend, Francis Scott Key (author of the Star Spangled Banner), both of whom had a reputation for being friendly to Washington's free blacks. Together, the three canvassed for support, and on December 21, 1816, called an organizational meeting for the society that included some of the most powerful and influential men in the country. 

In a series of meetings over the next few days, the group adopted a constitution, chose officers, and decided to call themselves the "American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Color in the United States." Bushrod Washington, the nephew of George Washington, was chosen as president of the society. Vice presidents included Finley, Henry Clay, and Richard Rush, the son of Benjamin Rush. Andrew Jackson was included on the list without his consent; in reality he was a staunch anti-colonizationist. Caldwell was the organization's secretary, and Key was on the board of managers. 

The motives of the ACS members varied considerably. Some were genuine allies of free blacks, and were concerned for their welfare. Some hoped that colonization would eradicate slavery. Others wanted to maintain the institution of slavery but to rid the country of free blacks, who they believed posed a serious threat as potential fomenters of slave rebellion.

The concept of black colonization did not originate with Finley. Since 1787, efforts to find an alternative home for free blacks had sometimes been praised by blacks themselves and by staunch allies such as Anthony Benezet and Benjamin Rush. One of the most active proponents of colonization was Paul Cuffe, who felt that black people living in America would never receive the full benefits of citizenship, and that they would fare much better on the friendly shores of Africa.

The response of black Philadelphians to colonization was mixed. James Forten was a close friend of Cuffe's and a supporter of Cuffe's colonization schemes. Other prominent blacks, such as Richard Allen and Absalom Jones, knew all too well the effects of white prejudice, and African colonization seemed an attractive alternative. Yet despite their leaders' support for colonization, the common people unequivocally rejected the notion, and Philadelphia's blacks became well known as the chief opponents of the ACS. 

The ACS continued its work until after the Civil War. The organization worked with the United States government to establish the African colony of Liberia, where it transported approximately 12,000 blacks over the course of its existence. Although the ACS controlled the bulk of emigration, other groups formed their own schemes. The total number of black people to emigrate from the United States to other countries was approximately 15,000. 

December 27, 2016

On this day December 26th...


 On this day, December 26, 1908 Jack Johnson defeated Tommy Burns in Sydney, Australia, for the heavyweight Championship. Burns will later say of his loss, "Race prejudice was rampant in my mind. The idea of a black man challenging me was beyond enduring. Hatred made me tense."

Jack London, the famous novelist, was in Sydney covering the fight for the New York Herald. He wrote: "The fight? There was no fight. No Armenian massacre could compare with the hopeless slaughter that took place today. The fight, if fight it could be called, was like that between a pygmy and a colossus....But one thing now remains. Jim Jeffries must emerge from his alfalfa farm and remove the golden smile from Jack Johnson’s face. Jeff, it’s up to you! The White Man must be rescued."

Over 20,000 people crammed into Sydney Stadium at Ruschcutters Bay and another 30,000 were estimated to be outside the stadium perched in trees, on roofs, up power poles and wherever they could gain a vantage point.

Johnson mocked Burns from the onset: "Poor little Tommy, who told you you were a fighter?" And on the rare occasion when Burns managed to land a punch, Johnson laughed and said, "Poor, poor, Tommy. Who taught you to hit? Your mother?" Although most of what he said was relatively banal, it was always accompanied by a sardonic smile. 

November 02, 2016

On This Day November 2nd...

On this date November 2nd 1930, more than 72 nations ascended on the New Flower (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia) for an unprecedented event that was held in St George’s Cathedral. The Great Coronation of Africa... Zion Divine Negus Negast Haile Sellassie (Qädamawi Haylä Səllasé) was the first of its kind.

Born Lij Tafari Makonnen Woldemikael, (Baptismal name Haile Sellassie) the ascending King Tafari Makonnen broke from tradition in two significant ways. First, He insisted that both He and His wife Menen Asfaw (Baptismal name Wolete Giyorgis) were crowned within the same ceremony and not three days later as was customary. Secondly, He postponed this the 225th coronation of Africa Zion Divine Ruler for seven months as oppose to the customary 48 hours or less.

The 1930 Coronation was the third time Mr. Tafari was crowned, he was 1st as Regent Tafari 1916; 2nd as Negus Tafari in 1928, and 3rd as Negus Negast on November 2nd 1930. Among the gifts received by HIM seven were of major significance, namely, the two traditional Lances (spears) filigreed in gold; the Imperial Vestments; the Sword; the Imperial Scepter of ivory and gold; the Golden Orb (globe); a diamond incrusted Ring; The Triple Crown.

The new ruler obtained the name Haile Sellassie from his baptism, which took place when he was only three days old. It means might of the Trinity therefore the crowned Emperor become Qädamawi Haile Sellassie “1st might or power of the Trinity”.

His Majesty’s utterance “I am the least of my brethren” uttered by H.I.M. at the coronation reflects the highest level of humility and divine character.

DARC is honored to have used this occasion to launch her website in 2013, and herein extends Ithiopic salutations to the Great Ras Tafari Nation and all the inhabitants of the Universe on this the 86th anniversary. Please visit us at for more information on the Great Coronation.

DARC says Fiqir Bandinet and Melkam Great Coronation Anniversary to all.



October 28, 2016

On This Day October 28th...

On this date October 28, 1933 Manoel Francisco dos Santos the renowned Brazilian soccer player, was born in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A congenial deformity of his leg bones (inward leaning right leg and outward leaning left) earned him the childhood nickname of Garrincha, the little bird wren, small and frail. His life was tragic as his soccer was joyful, suffering from alcoholism as his father did, Garrincha died poor on January 20, 1983 at age 49.

 Known for his dribbling abilities, Garrincha won two world cup titles, in 1958 and 1962. His physical condition, however, made it hard for him to begin his soccer career. Conversely, that condition allowed him to make his astounding dribbles, fooling his adversaries who could never anticipate in which direction his body would go. 

In 1953, he joined Botafogo Club, in Rio de Janeiro, quickly becoming a part of the national squad in 1955. His international record included 50 caps, 12 goals, scoring 5 times in his 12 final world cup matches. More importantly, he led Brazil to two consecutive world titles after the demoralizing defeat at home during the 1950 FIFA World Cup in Rio de Janeiro.

“The joy of the people” (alegria do povo), and “the angel with bent legs,” were a few of the expressions associated with Garrincha. Paired with the legendary player Pelé during the late 1950s and 1960s, they helped create the notion of Brazil’s beautiful soccer that enchanted the world.

The joy Garrincha brought the country and sport of soccer did not materialize in his personal life. In his last years, after many broken relationships, he was involved in several car crashes, including running over his father and killing his mother-in-law, which only exacerbated his drinking. Nevertheless, it is for the delight of his game that he is remembered, as the embodiment of the promise of a better, more blissful and ever triumphant Brazil.



October 23, 2016

On This Day October 23rd...

On this day Oct 23 BC Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher. Can you really believe this BS?

 The birth of Pele aka Edson Arantes do Nascimento, on this day in 1940 is real however.

Born Pelé was born Edson Arantes do Nascimento on October 23, 1940 in Três Corações, Brazil. Named after Thomas Edison and nicknamed "Dico," Pelé moved with his family to the city of Bauru as a young boy. While there his family allow the budding phenom to leave home and try out for the Santos professional soccer club when he was 15.

After an ultra successful try out, Pelé signed with Santos and immediately started practicing with the team's regulars. He scored the first professional goal of his career before he turned 16, led the league in goals in his first full season and was recruited to play for the Brazilian national team.

The world was officially introduced to Pelé in the 1958 World Cup in Sweden. Displaying remarkable speed, athleticism and field vision, the 17-year-old erupted to score three goals in a 5-2 semifinal win over France, then netted two more goals in the finals, a 5-2 win over the host country. Pelé immediately became a superstar with his superb performance in the 1958 World Cup.

Pele played professionally in Brazil for two decades, winning three World Cups along the way, before joining the New York Cosmos late in his career. Named FIFA co-Player of the Century in 1999, he is a global ambassador for soccer and other humanitarian causes. In fact, in the late 1960s, the two factions in the Nigerian Civil War reportedly agreed to a 48-hour ceasefire so they could watch Pelé play in an exhibition game in Lagos.

The young superstar received hefty offers to play for European clubs, and Brazilian President Jânio Quadros eventually had Pelé declared a national treasure, making it legally difficult for him to play in another country. Regardless, Santos club ownership ensured its star attraction was well paid by scheduling lucrative exhibition matches with teams around the world.

 On October 1, 1977 Soccer legend Pele officially retires playing his final game in an exhibition between New York and Santos at the Giant Stadium in New Jersey, competing for both sides, and retiring with a total of 1,281 goals in 1,363 games.





October 10, 2016

On This Day October 10th...

On this day October 10, 1897 the Hon. Elijah Muhammad was born Elijah Poole in Sandersville, Georgia as one of 13 children of tenant farmers who were former slaves. Elijah left home at the age of 16 and traveled throughout the United States and finally settled in Detroit, Michigan in 1923 where he worked at an automobile factory.


In the early 1930s, a time of severe economic distress, he became acquainted with a white man W.D. Fard (Wali Farad, Master Farad Muhammad) and his life changed forever. Fard, had already established a Temple of Islam in Detroit. The beliefs taught by Fard though similar to "orthodox" Islam, spoke directly to Black people and attempted to meet their needs. It called for complete Black separation from whites whom were viewed as the sworn enemies of Blacks and humanity. The Nation of Islam (NOI) as it was known, demanded Black independence in economics, religion, and nationhood. The teachings of the NOI regularly denounced Black men especially for drinking, gambling, physical abuse of Black woman, moral wrongs, and the inability to protect one's family from attacks by violent white America. Upon Fard's disappearance in 1934, Elijah Muhammad became the successor to the NOI and became Supreme Minister.

The teachings of the NOI and Elijah Muhammad would have a profound impact on Black American life. In a small amount of time the small organization became well known throughout the United States, buying land, opening businesses, and increasing its growth. Its strict moral discipline, devout religious adherence, healthy lifestyle, and seemingly miraculous ability to convert even the lease among us, drew many to its ranks. One of those that Elijah would bring into the NOI light was an ex-convict who the world would come to know as Malcolm X. Soon Elijah would gain world recognition as his teachings were spread through his still well read book, Message to the Black Man.

With the transition of Elijah Muhammad in 1975, the NOI went through a brief period of unrest. Under the guidance of his son, Wallace Muhammad, the NOI was moved into the mainstream of "orthodox" Islam and even began to accept white members. Such shifts away from the original Black Nationalist religious teachings of Elijah Muhammad soon caused a split within the organization.

It was not long before splinter groups emerged to once again carry on Elijah's teachings. Though they number quite a few, the most well known are most likely the more "street-based" 5% Nation of Islam and the Nation of Islam under Minister Louis Farrakhan. The NOI under Minister Louis Farrakhan has been a driving force in Black Nationalistic political thought since the 1980s. Most noticeably, it was instrumental in the calling and organizing of the now historic Million Man March of 1995.

Through the decades Elijah Muhammad's messages of self-help, self-sufficiency, self-defense, and self-love have shaped deeply the path of Black Nationalism and to a lesser degree Pan-Africanism. His legacy continues today as his teachings create converts throughout America and the Black world.

October 09, 2016

On This Day October 9th...

On this day October 9, Benjamin Banneker transitioned unto the realm of an ancestor.

Benjamin Banneker was born on November 9, 1731, in Ellicott's Mills, Maryland. A free black man who owned a farm near Baltimore, Banneker was largely self-educated in astronomy and mathematics a fact that did little to diminish his brilliance.

His early accomplishments included constructing an irrigation system for the family farm and a wooden clock that was reputed to keep accurate time and ran for more than 50 years until his death. In addition, Banneker taught himself astronomy and accurately forecasted lunar and solar eclipses. After his father's passing, he ran his own farm for years, cultivating a business selling tobacco via crops.

He was later called upon to assist in the surveying of territory for the construction of the nation's capital. He also became an active writer of almanacs and exchanged letters with Thomas Jefferson, politely challenging him to do what he could to ensure racial equality. In his letter, Banneker acknowledged he was “of the African race” and a free man. He recognized that he was taking “a liberty” writing to Jefferson, which would be unacceptable considering “the almost general prejudice and prepossession, which is so prevalent in the world against those of my complexion.” Banneker then respectfully chided Jefferson and other patriots for their hypocrisy, enslaving people like him while fighting the British for their own independence. Jefferson quickly acknowledged Banneker's letter, writing a response, which DARC affixed below dated August 30, 1791 from the Library of Congress:

I thank you sincerely for your letter of the 19th. instant and for the Almanac it contained. no body wishes more than I do to see such proofs as you exhibit, that nature has given to our black brethren, talents equal to those of the other colours of men, & that the appearance of a want of them is owing merely to the degraded condition of their existence both in Africa & America. I can add with truth that no body wishes more ardently to see a good system commenced for raising the condition both of their body & mind to what it ought to be, as fast as the imbecillity of their present existence, and other circumstance which cannot be neglected, will admit. I have taken the liberty of sending your almanac to Monsieur de Condorcet, Secretary of the Academy of sciences at Paris, and member of the Philanthropic society because I considered it as a document to which your whole colour had a right for their justification against the doubts which have been entertained of them. I am with great esteem, Sir, Your most obedt. humble servt. Th. Jefferson


Banneker's additional acclaim came from his almanacs, which he published for six consecutive years during the later years of his life, between 1792 and 1797. These handbooks included his very own astronomical calculations as well as opinion pieces, literature and medical and tidal information, with the latter particularly useful to fishermen. Outside of his almanacs, Banneker also published information on bees and calculated the cycle of the 17-year locust.

In 1972, scholar Sylvio A. Bedini published an acclaimed biography on the 17th-century icon—The Life of Benjamin Banneker: The First African-American Man of Science. A revised edition appeared in 1999. DARC encourages everyone to at the very lease, give it a look.



October 07, 2016

On This Day October 7th...

On this day October 7, 1928 Ras (his title from 1916 to 1928) Tafari was crowned Negus (King) Tafari Makonnen Woldemikael by Empress Zewditu who granted him the throne of Shoa, elevating his title to Negus or "King" in Ethiopia Africa.

The above information pertains to the Ethiopian Emperor (1930 - 1974) Haile Sellassie 1st this being the centennial year of his ruler-ship of Ethiopia and the Global African Nation.

We the citizens within the Great RasTafari Nation extend our most gracious Love and appreciation of your selfless devotion and divine commitment to Ethiopia’s progress.  



October 06, 2016

On This Day October 6th...

On this day October 6, 1895 W.D. Davis patented an improved riding saddle.

When it comes to the topic of famous inventors, no one will miss the big names, such as Edison, Graham Bell, and Tesla, but only a few would take notice of William D. Davis. In fact, his invention, the modern horse saddle, is better known than he is. He is one of the prominent African Americans who have made a lasting contribution to the American culture. But what makes his invention special since there were already saddles used during his time?

William D. Davis had a novel idea to make such long expeditions more comfortable. Black soldiers typically were issued the roughest stock, and he invented a special type of improved saddle designed to render an easier ride on hard-trotting horses. Davis filed a patent on his improved saddle in 1896. His idea was to add springs beneath the seat and at the tops of the stirrups. While Davis did not invent the use of springs on saddles, the type of spring, its longevity, and its placement were his own. Although never standard army issue, Davis saddles provided a smoother ride for cavalry, cowboys, and gentlemen riders.


October 05, 2016

On this day October 5th...

On this day October 5, 1975 Winnie Mandela, wife of the then imprisoned African National Congress leader, Nelson Mandela ends her thirteen years of enforced silence with a strong attack on the country's Terrorism Act.

Mandela was twice detained under section 6 of the notorious Terrorism Act, which permitted 90 days imprisonment without trial. She was repeatedly placed under solitary confinement in the Pretoria Central Prison and allowed only one visitor at time. The only thing that kept her going was the Mandela name and her two young daughters, who were a constant reminder of survival. Mandela criticized the Act as Afrikaner’s cowardly manner of trying to suppress those that speak against the horrendous deeds of the government.